What parasites can be brought back from exotic vacations?
In the tropics, the hot climate, humidity and low levels of hygiene promote the proliferation of parasites and pathogens. Annually, the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine of the Medical University of Gdansk receives more than 100 people b, which re returning from exotic vacations, on which rych have caught some parasite or pathogen. Some some of them – for example, due to a severe form of malaria – have to be hospitalized, the rest are treated in outpatient clinics.
List of diseases b who re threatened in the tropics, is very long. These include, for example, filariasis, Buruli ulcer, anaplasmosis, meliodiosis, legionellosis, amebiasis, malaria, dengue disease and other hemorrhagic fevers. When we go to exotic countries, we are also more at risk of health problems, kt re occur and in Poland: scabies, chlamydiosis, giardiasis, tapeworms, roundworm, typhoid, meningococcal meningitis. m spinal infections, tuberculosis, but also diarrhea.
Experts warn that you don’t have to leave Europe to bring back an unwanted souvenir. For example, in 2011, cases of malaria were registered in Greece. Pathogens and parasites often reside not so much on the continent, as much as in areas with specific climates.
FUO- fever as a souvenir of the vacations
It is assumed that approx. 20-50 percent. tourist residing in the tropics (such as Africa, Asia, Latin America) have health problems during the trip ry, and some of them suffer from fever of unknown origin (FUO). Most often this applies to tourists in those returning from the field in sub-Saharan Africa.
Between 30 and 40 percent of. Fevers of unknown origin can have an infectious cause. In children, infectious causes predominate, in adults – non-infectious. The most common causes of FUO related to podr The diseases are malaria, typhoid fever, typhoid fever, typhoid fever, typhoid fever, typhoid fever and typhoid fever łta fever, viral hepatitis, rickettsiosis and acute retroviral disease.
It is fever of unknown cause that is a common reason for hospitalization of people b podr chewing. 91 percent. patient with FUO return to full health within 3 months of infection.
Individuals going to countries In the tropics, immunization is recommended. Among the vaccinations routinely recommended in the suburban gy include diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, hepatitis A and B, influenza, poliomyelitis (Heine-Medin disease), infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B, infections caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), measles, mumps, Gonorrhea, pneumococcal infections, rotavirus infections, tuberculosis, chickenpox. For vaccination to be effective, it should be done the most Then 2 weeks before departure.
– Most of the more serious diseases b tropical is transmitted by mosquitoes, snails or other insects – m sees Dr. Andrzej Koltowski, president of the Polish Society of Marine, Tropical and Podr ży. – Therefore, when going out for a walk at dusk, when mosquitoes are most active, you need to wear long sleeves and long-legged pants, as well as headgear. If we go to areas in which the ricides malaria, it is a good idea to spray the bedroom with insect repellents 40 minutes before going to bed jczymi and leave such a room for a while. Mosquito nets and repellents, or repellents, should also be used to repel.
We are threatened by nematodes when we eat raw fish
Anisakiosis is a disease caused by the nematode Anisakis marina. The hosts of these parasites are large marine mammals such as seals, dolphins, cetaceans and fish. A person becomes a host if he eats raw fish, especially lnie need to be careful in Japan and Southeast Asia. It is very important to eat only thermally prepared fish.
– In Asia, fish marinades are very popular, but it is important to remember that marinades do not kill the parasite – emphasizes Dr. Koltowski.
Symptoms of nematode infection are: spasmodic b abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Diagnosis usually occurs during gastroscopy, when the parasite can be seen. The only treatment is gastroscopic removal of the parasite. Unless this occurs, there is calcification of the nematode after approx. 3 months.
Oysters – in them may be protozoa
Bonamiosis is a disease that The disease is caused by protozoa of the genus Bonamia, a species of ostrae. The hosts of this parasite are edible oysters. The symptom is an infected oyster shucking, shell dilation. These parasites inhabit seas all over the world. In humans, they cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis.
As part of prevention, it is necessary to pay attention to how the oysters look before eating them.
Filariasis are hermaphroditic worms. These are exotic tissue worms, which re lead to organ lesions, involving subcutaneous tissue rna, lymphatic, visual and genital organs.
– Phyllodes rarely occur among d tourists – emphasizes Dr. Koltowski. – Rather, we treat volunteers and missionaries for this reason, kt ers who have stayed abroad for a longer period of time and have been in contact with these parasites several times.
Filariasis occurs mainly n tropical areas of Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, Pacific islands, the Caribbean. The definitive host is humans, which ry are infected with invasive larvae of the parasite transmitted by some re species of mosquito in and mesquite. These parasites reside in the tissue of podsk rnej or lymphatic of the final host.
Usually the onset of the disease is asymptomatic. After the incubation period, which ry lasts from 4 weeks to a few months, there is fever, chills, enlargement and soreness of the nodes In lymphadenopathy, local swelling. In men, symptoms of organ inflammation may appear in sexual.
Filarial infestation leads to obstruction of the lymphatic vessels, which impedes the outflow of lymph, especially in the lower extremities. Therefore, this one becomes painful, swollen, there is a thickening of the sk ry, which ra breaks down and becomes susceptible to bacterial superinfection. It can even lead to changes in the eyeball.
Gl The primary site of filaria invasion is the lymph nodes, where the parasites multiply. Filarial infection can lead to disability.
To protect yourself from these parasites, you need to wear proper clothing, use insect repellents and protective nets.
Beware of animal feces!
Parasites can also be transmitted through contaminated feces ps and cat. In this way b infection occurs with hookworms that parasitize these quadrupeds.
Wandering larvae is a parasitic disease of the skin ry caused by the larvae of some rych species in hookworms. Occurs in tropical countries with warm and humid climates. In animals, this parasite undergoes a normal developmental cycle; in humans, it wanders in sk rze.
Itchy lumps form at the site of larvae penetration. The incubation period lasts 5-12 days. On the sk rze appear lesions, slightly elevated above the surface of the sk ry, which the color is darker than the skin ry normal skin. You can notice the movement of the larvae. There is an intense feast of sk ry and wt rne infections. Most often the larvae are located on the feet, hands, buttocks and back.
If you go to the tropics, you should walk in footwear and avoid direct skin contact ry with sand.
If, after returning from an exotic trip ry, there will be febrile conditions, diarrhea – especially with an admixture of blood or other worrisome symptoms, you should see a doctor and tell him not only about the symptoms, but also the fact of vacationing in the tropics.